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History of Egypt

HISTORY OF EGYPT OVERVIEW

Ancient Egypt

History of ancient Egypt Ancient Egyptian civilization developed in thousands of settlements in the Nile Valley. People gradually mastered the craft of farming and created permanent residences. I. e. Around 4000, some villages were fortified. Their tribal chiefs controlled more and more countryside, gaining more and more power. 

Unity of Egypt Under Narmer

From these areas the prefectures, i.e. the administrative districts of Egypt, emerged. I. e. Around 3400, two strong kingdoms developed: one in the Nile Delta (Lower Egypt) and the other in the south, in the Nile Valley (Upper Egypt). According to legend, Narmer, or Mennes, King of Upper Egypt, was ca. In 3100 BC, he conquered Lower Egypt and took control of the whole country. This was expressed by the royal double crown: the amalgamation of the white crown depicting a vulture in Upper Egypt and the red crown depicting a cobra in Lower Egypt. 

Narmer’s glory is called. his palette advertises in which his heroic deeds and the image of the double crown are engraved. It can be viewed at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. I. e. Around 280, Manethon, an Egyptian scholar priest, divided the history of his country from Mennes to Alexander the Great into a dynasty, or royal family. 

Recent historians have grouped these under the name of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. The so-called in predinastic age, which is approx. It lasted for 300 years, and the unity of Egypt was strengthened. They laid the foundations for the political structure of the state.

Old Kingdom

In the Old Kingdom (Dynasties III-VIII, c. 2664-2155 BC), Egypt became a rich kingdom; its capital was Memphis. Art and architecture stood high. His almighty ruler was called Pharaoh. It was during this time that the pyramids symbolizing the wealth and power of the rulers were built with tremendous work. The series of these was opened in Sakkaraby the stepped pyramid of Djoser, culminating in the great pyramids of Giza.

Middle Kingdom

The V. during the dynasty, the power of the pharaoh began to be threatened by the growing nobility and the influential priestly order. All this led to a civil war and the disintegration of the state. Eventually, Mentuhotep, king of Thebes, reunited Egypt. He opened a new era, which literature calls the Middle Kingdom (XII dynasty, c. 2051-1786 BC). It was one of the most successful periods in the history of Egypt and the most prosperous period in its art.

They did a great deal of public work in the country, draining the swampy area of ​​My Faiyum. Abroad, the Egyptian army conquered Nubia in the south and occupied Syria in the east. The weakening of the power of the pharaohs again led to decline. I. e. Around 1700, the Huksos invaded the northern half of Egypt and gained a decisive role in the country for about four hundred years. Although they could not occupy the southern part of Egypt, the area paid them taxes.

With the help of the Huksos, the Nubians regained their independence from Egypt. One of the benefits of the Huksos conquest was that the Egyptians became acquainted with the horse, chariot, spinning, weaving, and some new instruments.

New Kingdom

The city of Thebes again became a source of Egyptian renewal during the Amasis-led uprising. He founded the XVIII. dynasty, which marked the beginning of the New Empire (18th-20th dynasties, c. 1554-1075 BC). This was the era of Egyptian military power. He recaptured Nubia, Egypt, Syria, Palestine and, in part, Mesopotamia. The XVIII. one of the rulers of the dynasty was Queen Hatshepsut. She was on the throne for 20 years. He was portrayed as a king with a pharaoh’s beard. Her best-known monument is the Temple of the Death next to Deir el Bahari.

Ekhnaton Cult

The most interesting episode of the era is IV. It was the reign of Amenhotep, who called himself Ekhnaton. He sought to introduce the monotheistic cult of the god Aton (the sundial), and in his honor he founded a new capital near Amarna called Ahet-Aton. It is possible that with this political decision he tried to curb the extraordinary power of the priests of Amon-Ré, Thebes. Many assumptions were made about Ehnaton’s physical and mental endowments. The basis for this was that he and his family were depicted strangely, with a strange cone-shaped head and a squeaky body. The crisis caused by Ehnaton’s action was resolved after his death: his successor, Tutankhamun.

TutAnkhamun made Thebes the capital again, restoring Amon-Ré’s honor as a state religion. In 1922, archaeologists Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon found Tutankhamun’s tomb, which remained intact, in the Valley of the Kings near Thebes, which showed the world the incredible wealth that surrounded the pharaohs.

The Battle of Kadesh

Other powerful powers began to emerge in the Middle East. In Asia Minor, the Hittites were a problem, although in the 19th century. dynasty II. Ramses tried to reach an agreement with them. The temple reliefs depict his battle with the Hittites at Kadesh as a great victory. However, a greater danger was posed by the so-called wandering robbers of sea peoples who attacked the shores of the Mediterranean at the end of the 13th century BC. A XX. ruler of the dynasty, Ramses III (1182-1151 BC) defeated them in a great naval battle.

Decline and Persian power

The Egyptian empire was irreparably weakened. The pharaohs gradually lost their power. I. e. Around 1050, Egypt was divided by the High Priest of Amon of Thebes and the Vizier of Tunis, in the northeastern part of the Delta in Lower Egypt, and Pharaoh ruled only nominally. A XXIII-XXV. dynasty (c. 760-650 BC) was anarchy. The former vassals of Egypt, the Nubians, gave the XXV. dynasties of the dynasty. Then conquerors followed: first Assyria (7th century BC), then the Persians (6th century BC). The latter ruled Egypt with a strong hand for about 200 years.

Egypt under Alexander the Great and the Ptolemy

From Alexander the Great to present-day Egypt Alexander the Great was hailed as a liberator when he entered the land of Egypt in 332 BC. After his death, Egypt again became an independent kingdom under Ptolemy, who was the commander of Alexander the Great. The Ptolemaic dynasty ruled for 300 years. The greatest influence on Egypt at that time was made by Greece.

Alexandria, the new capital, has become a brilliant center of science and art. Egyptian was replaced by Greek as the state language. The Ptolemas enjoyed the natives; a new blend of Greek and Egyptian religious elements was circulated.

The construction of traditional Egyptian temples was also encouraged. The common people were probably hardly affected by the Greek influence. They kept their ancient customs and beliefs.

The Roman Empire

Egypt was occupied by the Romans in 31 BC, after the Battle of Actium and the death of the last Ptolemy ruler, Cleopatra. The country was governed by a prefect who was solely responsible to Emperor Augustus. The emperor considered the new territory his own property. Egyptian grain fed Rome for centuries, but Egypt only became poorer under the Romans. I. sz. In 395, Egypt became part of the Eastern Roman Empire and came under Byzantine rule. Instead of Roman religious customs, many adopted Christianity.

Islamic conquer 

The religious life of present-day Egypt is dictated by the Arab conquest in 640, a few centuries later. Byzantine rule was swept away, and the country gradually converted to the Islamic faith. A Christian minority, however, the Copts retained their faith. Egypt, under the direction of the deputies of the caliphs, has become one of the strengths of the Muslim world.

The Fatimids founded the new capital, Cairo, in 969. In 1171, Saladin became king of Egypt. With his conquests, he ruled Syria, Mesopotamia, and much of Arabia and North Africa. After his death, the empire quickly disintegrated. Around 1250, the kingdom fell into the hands of the Mamluks.

Mamluks 

This military group was made up of former Turkish and Circassian slaves who had previously been royal bodyguards. After about 250 years of prosperous rule by the Mamluks, in 1517 the Turks occupied the country.

Ottoman Rule

Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman rule, Egypt declined, sank into political turmoil. The next stranger to claim it was Napoleon in 1798.

Modern History

The French conquest lasted until 1801. In 1805, the Turkish officer Mohamed Ali, who had great military power, appointed himself governor and soon became the leader of the country. The dynasty he founded bankrupted Egypt, the country became indebted. France and Britain competed for their own influence. Eventually, Egypt became an English protectorate. Even after the end of the English patronage (1992), the British military presence remained for decades. The last ruler, King of Faruk, was forced to relinquish his throne in 1952 in favor of his minor son, Fuád. In 1953, a group of military officers overthrew the monarchy and declared Egypt a republic. From 1954, Colonel Gamel Abdel Nasser was the President until his death in 1970.

After Gamal abd El Nasser president Sadat came to power. Launching the 1973 or October War  until the 1979 agreement signed by Egyptian President Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin in Camp David, under the auspices of US President Carter, gave him greater autonomy. Tourism, which has always flourished and was one of the pillars of the economy, is developing at an unprecedented rate, despite the stagnation during the Gulf War. 

Mubarak Rule 

President Sadat was assassinated in 1980. After death of president Sadat Mubarak who was the Sadat’s vice president came to power and managed to rule for 30 years. Until he was over thrown by the 2011 revolution

Muslim brother hood

A brief rule of muslim brotherhood  that came to power with election they were overthrown by a coup packed by people consent.

President Sisi