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Crystal Mountain

The crystal mountain crown adorns the white desert and is one of the richest treasures of the Farafra Oasis. The mountain is located 120 km from the Farafra Oasis, and 160 km from the Bahariya Oasis, which is more than 400 km from Giza. They are unique hills made of more than 12 types of crystal-like stones that fuse together to form a stunning natural look.

The mountain is characterized as one of the most beautiful natural areas in the White Desert Reserve. It is a mountain consisting of crystal rocks, and it is unique in its kind, as the shiny crystal pieces are considered one of the precious rocks that have no equal in the world, and it has become one of the most important tourist attractions in particular because it contains The most beautiful scenery, charming nature


For metamorphic limestone rocks, it is the first point on the way to enter the reserve and in front of it is a large sign that includes all available information about it.

The mountain consists entirely of crystals or pure and unique crystal, which is a cave area that was subjected to drowning and turned into metamorphic limestone rocks.

As for the area to which the mountain belongs, it was a sea during the Eocene eras until the Cretaceous period, and when the sea dried up after the Cretaceous period, this area appeared, including the Crystal Mountain.

Shiny crystal pieces are made of rare and precious rocks that have no equal in the world and consist of more than 125 types of crystal gathered in a huge mountain mass, so it is one of the richest, most expensive and rarest mountains in the world, and it is a small arc of rocks, sparkling under the The sun’s rays shine with dazzling lights that look like a crown adorned with thousands of gems and very rare colored crystals drawn by nature.

Many people usually think that it is a giant mountain that rises above the surface of the desert land, but they are shocked when they visit it, as it is nothing but medium-sized hills that are scattered in large areas of the Bahariya Oasis, and the Farafra Oasis in the western deserts.

Crystal Mountain was a full cave of stalagmites and stalactites, and with the passage of time and as a result of erosion factors, the cave lost its roof, and there are ancient indications that the area was formed after a great meteorite impacted the earth and generated high temperatures. Very led to the fusion of rocks, and turned into pieces of precious crystal.

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The Ministry of Environment declared the mountain a nature reserve in 2008, after most of the tourists and locals collected the scattered crystal pieces, causing it to be empty of most of the pieces, leaving only the solid mountain structure that is difficult to break. But it turns out that not just colored stones, but one of the most expensive types of stones in the world


Geology of the mountain


There are well-exposed caves and paleokarst terrain developed within the Khoumann Maastricht chalk. The Paleokarst terrain consists of massive collapsed Breccia and ancient caves with vertical stalagmites. The collapsed breccia is made of meter-sized round chalk limestone blocks inside the huge chalk bay. The outer surface of the breccia is surrounded by concentric layers of pure, stratified, centimeter-sized calcite crystals. There are black to dark brown inclusions between and along the crystal boundaries.

Ancient caves consist of calcite (CaCO3) crystals. The hill was opened during the works on the road from Farafra to Bahariya by accident and was partially destroyed. Caves appear to have developed around fractured blocks which later melt leaving concentric layers of secondary coarse crystalline calcite around the filter blocks. Some of these caves are filled with reddish laminate, silt and coarse sand from the canal (cave floor filling).

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Be sure to get extreme heat. Coal seam for example has been converted to anthracite. Crystals increased from aqueous climbing volcanic solutions. The hot solutions were highly concentrated with BaSO4 and/or CaCO3, which dissolved from the precipitate. Solutions penetrated into all cavities. After cooling the solutions crystals can increase. They consisted of columns or round domes with crystals inside.

Barite veins are widely distributed to the south of Hofuf Mountain which consists of a rocky sequence that includes sandstone, oil shale, limestone, phosphate limestone and phosphatic limestone sandstone. This succession culminated in an open circle Oligo-Miocene basalt plate about 20 meters thick.[3]

The caves likely resulted from episodes of subaerial exposure during the multiple exposure events known from Maastricht during the Oligocene time. The paleoclimate during this period in Egypt was wetter, with monsoonal and even tropical rainforests during the late Eocene and Oligocene (Bown and Kraus, 1988)

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