The pyramids of Giza near Cairo in Egypt are, with an impressive age of over 4500 years, the oldest ancient wonder of the world and at the same time the only one that survived the millennia. Together with the great Sphynx, they are UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1979. The three great pyramids were created in the 4th dynasty at the beginning of the Egyptian civilization in the period from about 2600 to 2500 BC. We know their appearance today as stepped pyramids, but that was not always the case. Originally, they had a smooth surface and were covered with limestone slabs. At the top of the Chephren pyramid still sees remnants of this disguise. The pyramids served as tombs for the pharaohs Cheops, Chephren and Mykerinos after which they were named. The order of the names also corresponds to the size and the age. Until the Middle Ages, the Pyramid of Cheops was the tallest building in the world. For this reason alone, the inclusion was safe to the wonder of the ancient world.
In the pyramids of Giza, in contrast to the tombs in the Valley of the Kings, no inscriptions were found and no mummies or grave goods. For a long time there was an opinion that an army of slaves was involved in the construction of the pyramids, but today it is certain that about 10,000 Egyptian workers have erected the pyramids. It is still not clear how you did it. The bike was not invented yet and hoists still far away. The most probable theory is that the heavy stones were transported by sled ramps on sledges. Since more than half of the stones were already installed after one third of the construction and the work towards the top was getting less and less, this procedure is quite conceivable. Even if you do not know exactly how the pyramids were built, it is almost certain that with the resources available at the time, the pyramids could be built without any problems in twenty years. Also, the necessary experience for the pyramid building was acquired by previous models such as the pyramid of Sakkara and reached the highest level of technology with the Cheops pyramid.
In the vicinity of the pyramids were found the quarries from which the stones came and the storage places of the workers. Interesting are the finds of six wooden boats near the pyramids. One of them has been restored and can be visited in a museum next to the Chephren pyramid.
Next are temples at the foot of the plain where the dead pharaohs were prepared for their journey after death. When you write about the pyramids of Giza, the great Sphynx, with a height of 20 meters and a length of 74 meters, is one of them. It was built at the same time as the pyramids and could have been a guardian of the dead kings of the Egyptians.
Location: Giza near Cairo in Egypt
Construction time: approx. 2600 – 2500 BC 20 years
builders: The pharaohs Cheops, Chephren and Mykerinos
Cheops pyramids: side lengths 230 meters, height 146 meters (today 139 meters)
Chephren pyramid : side lengths 215 meters, height 143 meters (today 136 meters)
Mykerinos pyramid: side lengths 103 meters , Height 65 meters
When talking about the wonder of the world, pyramids often only refer to the Great Pyramid of Cheops, and therefore only for this pyramid are the various statistics given. The pyramid had a side length of 230 meters and a height of about 146 meters. There were about 2.5 million limestone blocks installed which had an average weight of 2.5 tons.
The construction time, as with the other pyramids, was only about 20 years. The top of the pyramid as well as the other pyramids can be seen in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The pyramid of Cheops is the only one of the pyramids that has several burial chambers. The sarcophagus in the king’s chamber was opened without content and information about the remains of the pharaoh does not exist.
From the burial chambers, manholes lead outwards over their function is puzzled. They could have helped the pharaoh’s soul to find the way to heaven easier. Millions of audiences sat in front of the screen worldwide in 2002, watching live on TV as a miniature robot was sent to the so-called Gantenbrink Bay to drill a plate behind which only one more plate was found blocking the path. Many puzzles are still unresolved on the basis of the extremely sparse finds and hieroglyphs over this time. behind which only one more plate was found blocking the way.
The legends and myths surrounding the construction and function of the pyramids are barely countable, and quite a few have arrived in recent decades. Already at the extant texts of Herodotus around 450 v. Chr. Chr.,
It can be seen that the myth about the pyramids already flourished in full. The sides of the pyramids of Giza are built exactly to the four cardinal directions and there are further indications that the pyramids were at least partially built according to astronomical aspects. It is precisely these connections between heaven and earth that lead researchers and laymen to ever new “heights of thought”. One can almost get the impression that the more fantastic and unlikely the solutions appear, the more followers and voices in the media can be found for these theories.
Very well known are the approaches of Erich von Däniken, who sees extraterrestrials as the principals of the pyramids and the Orion theory of Robert Bauval, who has seen the map for the pyramids in the stars. After only a short search on the Internet, you can quickly find hundreds of the most contradictory theories about the formation of pyramids, all of which have one thing in common: they provide answers to questions that archeology can not give due to lack of evidence / evidence, or evidence in favor of more adventurous theories be ignored.
The research on the pyramids is still in full swing and until the last puzzle is solved it will take a very, very long time. who has seen the map for the pyramids in the stars. After only a short search on the Internet, you can quickly find hundreds of the most contradictory theories about the formation of pyramids, all of which have one thing in common: they provide answers to questions that archeology can not give due to lack of evidence / evidence, or evidence in favor of more adventurous theories be ignored.
Because of their age and their secrets, the Pyramids of Giza still inspire the imagination of mankind and are rightly among the most important buildings of humanity.