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History of Alexandria

Among all the Egyptian cities, this large settlement is the second largest in size, naturally, after the capital. At the same time, the history of Alexandria indicates that no one can move this city from the position of the main seaport of the state.

Since the city quarters are located in the Nile Delta and along the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, such a good geographical position determined the history of Alexandria from the moment it was founded.

The origins

The name of the city comes from the name of the greatest political, military leader Alexander the Great. Thanks to him, in 332 BC, a new settlement appeared in the Nile Delta. It received the name of a regular city, which was built strictly according to plan. In the history of Alexandria, this is an important period, since it is the main city of the so-called Ptolemaic Egypt . In addition, it is one of the important centers of the Hellenistic world.

The history of Alexandria can be briefly presented through the following periods (chronologically):

  • Hellenistic period, which lasted until the 1st century AD;
  • as part of the Roman Empire (until the 4th century AD);
  • under the rule of the Byzantine Empire (until the VII century);
  • Arab rule (until the XII century);
  • the era of Ayyubids and Mamluks (until the XVI century);
  • as part of the Ottoman Empire (during the XVI – XX centuries);
  • recent history (to the present).

From antiquity to the present day

Three hundred years of the reign of the Greeks ended with the advent of the emperor Octavian, the Roman period of the life of Alexandria began. At this time, the city competes with Rome, because it has a better geographical position. He plays an important role as the center of Christianity. Although the struggle for power does not stop throughout the entire period, it is often very tough.

In 395, after the entry of Egypt into Byzantium, a new life begins at Alexandria. The city is still the center of Christianity, to the political struggle is added the clarification of relations between various faiths, supporters of a particular Church.

In 641, Alexandria was captured by Arabs, the Byzantines are trying to recapture the city, but finally lose. Arabs are building a new capital, so this city begins to lose its significance and decline. From 1171, the reign of the Ayyubids and Mamluks dynasty began, which were replaced by the Ottomans in 1517, the period of their reign continued until the beginning of the twentieth century.

In the XIX – XX centuries. power in Egypt began to change much faster, Alexandria survived the occupation of the French troops of Napoleon, saw the British army (under the protectorate of Britain until 1922).