The temple of Luxor, dedicated to the triad of the gods of Thebes Amon, Mut and Khonsu, was connected to the first pylon of the Great temple of Amon at Karnak by more than 700 sphinxes. The Sphinxes form a straight line of 2.5 kilometers which crossed the city. There remains Sphinxes at the ends and some where found in the middle between both temples.
The statues of Sphinx bore ram’s heads under the New Kingdom. The later Sphinxes bore the King’s head under the region of Nectanebo.
The campaigns of Ramses II against the Hittites are represented there. The best preserved reliefs are those of the western wall of the Amenophis portico court, the colonnade and the large courtyard to the pylon.
One can see on the left side of the sphinx alley a small Roman brick chapel offered to the god Serapis on January 24, 126 by the Emperor Hadrian on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. This building belonged to the enclave of the old forecourt.
The grand pylon of Ramses II, which constitutes the facade of the temple, is 65 meters wide and 24 meters high. Its two massifs were originally covered with a white coating decorated with precious metal plates and a carved decoration painted with bright colors.
The pylon gates give access to the Ramses II courtyard, 50 meters wide and 57 meters long. It is surrounded by porticos comprising a double row of 74 columns with smooth barrels and closed papyriform capitals.
The granite chapel-restoir built by Queen Hatshepsut, then Thutmose III, located against the pylon, on the right entering the courtyard, has columns of the XVIIIth dynasty close to the plant model. The chapel, built for the Theban triad, was restored by Ramses II. It is preceded by fine columns in the form of bouquets of papyrus.